Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing a fetus or embryo from the womb before it can survive on its own.An abortion which occurs spontaneously is also known as a miscarriage.Obat Aborsi An abortion may be caused purposely and is then called an induced abortion, or less frequently, “induced miscarriage”. The word abortion is often used to mean only induced abortions. A similar procedure after the fetus could potentially survive outside the womb is known as a “late termination of pregnancy”.
Modern methods use medication or surgery for abortions.The drugs mifepristone and prostaglandin are as good as surgery during the first trimester.While medical methods may work in the second trimester,surgery has lower risk of side effects.Birth control, such as the pill or intrauterine devices, can be started at once after an abortion.When allowed by local law, abortion in the developed world is and has long been one of the safest procedures in medicine.Uncomplicated abortions do not cause any long term mental or physical problems.The World Health Organization recommends safe and legal abortions be available to all women.Every year unsafe abortions cause 47,000 deaths and 5 million hospital admissions.Obat Penggugur Kandungan
Around 44 million abortions occur each year in the world, with a little under half done unsafely.Abortion rates have changed little between 2003 and 2008,before which they decreased for decades due to better education about family planning and birth control.As of 2008, 40% of the world’s women had access to legal abortions without limits as to reason.Different governments have different limits on how late in pregnancy abortion is allowed.
Since ancient times abortions, have been done using herbal medicines, sharp tools, with force, or through other traditional methods.Abortion laws and cultural or religious views of abortions are different around the world. In some areas abortion is legal only in special cases such as rape, problems with the fetus, poverty, risk to a woman’s health, or incest.In many places there is much debate over the moral, ethical, and legal issues of abortion. Those who are against abortion often maintain that an embryo or fetus is a human with a right to life and may compare it to murder.Those who favor the legality of abortion often hold that a woman has a right to make decisions about her own body.
Medical abortions (also called chemical abortion) are those induced by abortifacient pharmaceuticals. Medical abortion became an alternative method of abortion with the availability of prostaglandin analogs in the 1970s and the antiprogestogen mifepristone (also known as RU-486) in the 1980s.
Cara menggugurkan Kandungan The most common early first-trimester medical abortion regimens use mifepristone in combination with a prostaglandin analog (misoprostol or gemeprost) up to 9 weeks gestational age, methotrexate in combination with a prostaglandin analog up to 7 weeks gestation, or a prostaglandin analog alone.Mifepristone–misoprostol combination regimens work faster and are more effective at later gestational ages than methotrexate–misoprostol combination regimens, and combination regimens are more effective than misoprostol alone.This regime is effective in the second trimester.
In very early abortions, up to 7 weeks gestation, medical abortion using a mifepristone–misoprostol combination regimen is considered to be more effective than surgical abortion (vacuum aspiration), especially when clinical practice does not include detailed inspection of aspirated tissue.Early medical abortion regimens using mifepristone, followed 24–48 hours later by buccal or vaginal misoprostol are 98% effective up to 9 weeks gestational age.If medical abortion fails, surgical abortion must be used to complete the procedure.
Early medical abortions account for the majority of abortions before 9 weeks gestation in Britain,France,Switzerland,and the Nordic countries.In the United States, the percentage of early medical abortions is far lower.
Medical abortion regimens using mifepristone in combination with a prostaglandin analog are the most common methods used for second-trimester abortions in Canada, most of Europe, China and India,in contrast to the United States where 96% of second-trimester abortions are performed surgically by dilation and evacuation.
Up to 15 weeks’ gestation, suction-aspiration or vacuum aspiration are the most common surgical methods of induced abortion.Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) consists of removing the fetus or embryo, placenta, and membranes by suction using a manual syringe, while electric vacuum aspiration (EVA) uses an electric pump. These techniques differ in the mechanism used to apply suction, in how early in pregnancy they can be used, and in whether cervical dilation is necessary.
MVA, also known as “mini-suction” and “menstrual extraction”, can be used in very early pregnancy, and does not require cervical dilation. Dilation and curettage (D&C), the second most common method of surgical abortion, is a standard gynecological procedure performed for a variety of reasons, including examination of the uterine lining for possible malignancy, investigation of abnormal bleeding, and abortion. Curettage refers to cleaning the walls of the uterus with a curette. The World Health Organization recommends this procedure, also called sharp curettage, only when MVA is unavailable.
From the 15th week of gestation until approximately the 26th, other techniques must be used. Dilation and evacuation (D&E) consists of opening the cervix of the uterus and emptying it using surgical instruments and suction. After the 16th week of gestation, abortions can also be induced by intact dilation and extraction (IDX) (also called intrauterine cranial decompression), which requires surgical decompression of the fetus’s head before evacuation. IDX is sometimes called “partial-birth abortion”, which has been federally banned in the United States.
In the third trimester of pregnancy, induced abortion may be performed surgically by intact dilation and extraction or by hysterotomy. Hysterotomy abortion is a procedure similar to a caesarean section and is performed under general anesthesia. It requires a smaller incision than a caesarean section and is used during later stages of pregnancy.
First-trimester procedures can generally be performed using local anesthesia, while second-trimester methods may require deep sedation or general anesthesia.Obat Bius
Labor induction abortion
In places lacking the necessary medical skill for dilation and extraction, or where preferred by practitioners, an abortion can be induced by first inducing labor and then inducing fetal demise if necessary.This is sometimes called “induced miscarriage”. This procedure may be performed from 13 weeks gestation to the third trimester. Although it is very uncommon in the United States, more than 80% of induced abortions throughout the second trimester are labor induced abortions in Sweden and other nearby countries.
Only limited data are available comparing this method with dilation and extraction.Unlike D&E, labor induced abortions after 18 weeks may be complicated by the occurrence of brief fetal survival, which may be legally characterized as live birth. For this reason, labor induced abortion is legally risky in the U.S.
Historically, a number of herbs reputed to possess abortifacient properties have been used in folk medicine: tansy, pennyroyal, black cohosh, and the now-extinct silphium.Klinik Aborsi The use of herbs in such a manner can cause serious—even lethal—side effects, such as multiple organ failure, and is not recommended by physicians.
Abortion is sometimes attempted by causing trauma to the abdomen. The degree of force, if severe, can cause serious internal injuries without necessarily succeeding in inducing miscarriage.In Southeast Asia, there is an ancient tradition of attempting abortion through forceful abdominal massage.One of the bas reliefs decorating the temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia depicts a demon performing such an abortion upon a woman who has been sent to the underworld.
Reported methods of unsafe the klinik aborsi jakarta, self-induced abortion include misuse of misoprostol, and insertion of non-surgical implements such as knitting needles and clothes hangers into the uterus. These methods are rarely seen in developed countries where surgical abortion is legal and available.All of these, and any other method to terminate pregnancy may be called “induced miscarriage”.